CATHOLIC SEX ABUSE SCANDAL
“L.A. Times asks judge to stop redaction of priest abuse records.” No by-line. Los Angeles Times. December 10, 2012. A Los Angeles County judge is set to meet today with lawyers for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and victims of clergy sex abuse. The hearing before Superior Court Judge Emilie H. Elias comes three days after the L.A. Times filed a motion opposing the redaction of the names of high-ranking church officials in confidential church files set to be made public in coming weeks. The records, all pertaining to priests accused of sexual abuse, are being released as part of a 2007 settlement with more than 500 alleged victims. “The public is entitled to know which members of the hierarchy had information about the widespread molestation of children and what they did about it,” lawyers for the newspaper wrote. “Without this information, the public will not be able to assess the extent of institutional or individual knowledge of the abuse.”
“L.A. Archdiocese personnel files could be released next month; A Superior Court judge has set a hearing for Jan. 7 to hear objections on releasing L.A.; Archdiocese files on its handling of child molestation allegations.” By Victoria Kim, Harriet Ryan and Ashley Powers. Los Angeles Times. December 10, 2012. After five years of legal wrangling, confidential personnel files of at least 69 priests accused of sexually abusing children in the Los Angeles Archdiocese could be ordered released as early as January, a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge said Monday. Judge Emilie H. Elias set a hearing for Jan. 7 to hear objections to the release of what a church attorney said were five or six banker’s boxes of files relating to the archdiocese’s handling of child molestation claims, which could include internal memos, Vatican correspondence and psychiatric reports. The public release of the files was agreed to as part of a record $660-million settlement reached in 2007 between the archdiocese and 562 people who alleged that they were molested as children by clergy members. The process, overseen by a retired judge, was beset by delays and faced objections from an attorney representing at least 30 of the priests, who contends that his clients’ constitutional rights to privacy are at stake. The retired judge, Dickran Tevrizian, also ordered that all names of church leaders, including Cardinal Roger M. Mahony, who retired as archbishop last year, be blacked out in the files, saying the information should not be used to embarrass the archdiocese. Attorneys for The Times on Friday filed a motion opposing the redaction of church officials’ names, contending that the public has a right to know who in the hierarchy knew of molestation allegations and what they did about it. “Without this information,” lawyers for the newspaper wrote, ” the public will not be able to assess the extent of institutional or individual knowledge of the abuse.”
“Catholic commission to advise on child sex abuse.” By Barney Zwartz. Sydney Morning Herald. December 12, 2012. The Catholic Church has set up a new Truth, Justice and Healing Commission to advise its bishops and run its dealings with the forthcoming royal commission on child sex abuse. It will be headed by two laymen, a retired Supreme Court judge as chairman and a prominent layman as chief executive, Australian Catholic Bishops Conference Chairman Denis Hart said today. Saying the church recognised it needed a sophisticated and coordinated response, Archbishop Hart has promised a new era of co-operation, transparency and honesty. So did both new appointments – Barry O’Keefe, QC, as chairman and Francis Sullivan as chief executive – whose first job will be to lift the commission’s membership to 10.
“Praise for church cover-up admission.” By Barney Zwartz. Sydney Morning Herald. December 15, 2012. For the first time, a Catholic spokesman has acknowledged that the church in Australia covered up sex abuse, according to a reform group of Catholics. The group praised Francis Sullivan, CEO of the yet-to-be-formed Catholic Truth, Justice and Healing Commission, for admitting to the media this week that he was personally scandalised and disillusioned by the church’s history of cover-ups. Peter Johnstone, chairman of Catholics for Renewal, said on Friday the church had previously acknowledged that it had mishandled abuse cases, but not cover-ups. He welcomed this week’s announcement of the lay-led Catholic council to advise the bishops about sex abuse and co-ordinate the church’s response to the forthcoming royal commission. Mr Sullivan, who called himself a committed Catholic, said on Friday he shared the perception cover-ups were widespread in the church. Mr Johnstone, a former director-general of Community Services for Victoria, also described his group as committed Catholics, who wanted reform at the top. In October 2011 it sponsored an open letter to the Pope, signed by more than 8000 Australian Catholics, about the ”manifestly inadequate” church response to clergy sexual abuse. ”The church’s decision-making is too remote from the people. The church is very centralised on matters of importance, and the record shows that local bishops were acting under clear instructions in only reporting such matters to Rome and hiding them from civil authorities.”
“Sifting through the burden of misguided intentions.” By Eamonn Duff. Sydney Morning Herald. December 16, 2012. For 35 years, Noi Kameraniya has sifted through the goods that everyday folk push into charity bins. It has always been messy, mundane work but in recent times, it has become worse. In the past hour alone, she’s fished out soiled underwear, a stained pillow and a bag of fusty socks with more holes than your average tea bag. Welcome to Anglicare’s central sorting depot, where a dedicated team of employees and volunteers sifts through the contents of 220 charity bins dotted across Sydney. The bins exist to raise vital funds for community projects but, nowadays, a growing number of people treat them as dumping grounds. Charities such as Anglicare help tens of thousands of people across the country, whether it be through home visits, migrant and refugee support, hospital and health services, prison support, aged-care services, or employment assistance for people with intellectual disabilities. Clothing donations also help finance education for disadvantaged children, hostels for the homeless, suicide prevention counselling and overseas relief. Charities such as Anglicare help tens of thousands of people across the country, whether it be through home visits, migrant and refugee support, hospital and health services, prison support, aged-care services, or employment assistance for people with intellectual disabilities. Clothing donations also help finance education for disadvantaged children, hostels for the homeless, suicide prevention counselling and overseas relief.
“Encyclopedia of World Problems Has a Big One of Its Own; Chronicle of Woes From Alien Abductions to Dandruff Finds Itself Short on Funds.” By Daniel Michaels. Wall Street Journal. December 11, 2012. Anthony Judge’s career has been peppered with problems, from Aarskog Syndrome to Zoonotic bacterial diseases. In between, he tackled dandruff, ignorance, kidney disorders and sabotage. It later spawned an encyclopedia focused on world woes. Mr. Judge, now semiretired, spent more than two decades editing the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential, a 3,000-page tome with almost 20,000 entries. The compendium of quandaries doesn’t just list problems, it also faces one: money troubles. Its last print edition ran in 1995 and an online version is rarely updated. Yet its producers see potential to resurrect it. The encyclopedia was Mr. Judge’s brainchild when he helped run the Union of International Associations, a century-old grouping of groups that began in an effort to categorize all human knowledge. The Union, which is less a union than a research institute, tracks more than 65,000 transnational groups including United Nations, the United Elvis Presley Society and the Hell’s Angels. Its yearbook of them, first printed in 1910, now tops 6,000 pages of dense print in six hardcover volumes, for $3,080. The UIA also organizes conferences to help organizations such as the European Coil Coating Association and the International Congress on Ultrasonics promote themselves in the cutthroat businesses of organizing conferences and managing associations. It was the UIA’s knowledge of organizations that in 1972 spawned the encyclopedia, after Mr. Judge and a friend got infuriated by a think-tank report that reduced the world’s problems to just six issues. Mr. Judge believed his association of associations could better tackle the problem of problems because many groups exist to resolve concerns in areas such as health, human rights and development.
“Co-op Laws in Cuba Are Seen as Progress.” By Daien Cave. New York Times. December 11, 2012. The Cuban government authorized a wide range of co-ops on Tuesday, allowing workers to collectively open new businesses or take over existing state-run businesses in construction, transportation and other industries. The new laws published Tuesday are the latest step in a slow, fitful process of opening Cuba’s economy to free-market ideas. The latest announcement calls for the creation of more than 200 co-ops as part of a pilot program. If it grows, analysts said, the experiment could do more for economic growth and productivity than earlier efforts to allow for self-employment, or to reform agriculture. Co-ops that are run independent from the government could shift a large portion of the island’s economy to free-market competition from government-managed socialism, analysts contend, a change from earlier co-op efforts within state-run agriculture. “The potential is large,” said Richard E. Feinberg, a professor of international political economy at the University of California, San Diego. “The Cubans are looking for something in between the old state-owned enterprise and a pure free market. Cooperatives are an answer, so looking forward, they could play a significant role.” For some Cubans, the new laws will just legalize what is already going on in the black market. But the government also seemed interested in encouraging consolidation among small entrepreneurs. The new laws call for lower tax rates for co-ops than for self-employed workers. That means barbers or fishermen or carpenters who now work as individuals will have an incentive to join co-ops, companies in which each worker has a vote. The new laws also say that co-ops can be formed with as few as three people, and that in addition to converting state businesses into co-ops — with first preference given to workers already there — co-ops will be able to bid for leases of idle government properties.
“Nonprofit helps artisans in Mexico get the lead out.” By Bella English. Boston Globe. December 11, 2012. Neil Leifer left his Boston law firm two years ago after spending 20 years litigating cases involving children’s lead poisoning. He sued lead and lead paint companies and property owners and managers on behalf of children with lead poisoning. In 2008, Leifer cofounded a nonprofit that helps ceramic artisans from rural Mexico convert from lead-based to lead-free glazes. The Globe spoke with him in advance of the Dec. 15 pottery sale to be held at Thayer Academy in Braintree.
“Spain’s Crisis Leads To Rise Of Grass-Roots Groups.” By Sylvia Poggioli. All Things Considered/National Public Radio. December 10, 2012. A year and a half ago, recession-ravaged Spanish society reacted to the economic crisis with the “Indignados,” a mass protest that inspired the worldwide “Occupy” movement. The “angry ones” are long gone from Spanish streets, but they’ve evolved into many grass-roots associations now filling the gaps left by the eroding welfare state, spawning a new form of anti-austerity resistance that embraces all branches of society, from those who have lost homes to foreclosures, to the entire judiciary. Hardly a day passes in Spain without a noisy demonstration by one sector of society or another. One day, it’s doctors. With drums beating, thousands of white-clad health workers protest government plans to overhaul the country’s highly respected public health system. “What they want to do is privatize the hospital, and we are here to just say we don’t want that to happen. We want that to stop because we think it has to be universal; everybody has to be able to go to hospital,” says Olwen Leaman, a young oncologist at Madrid’s Princesa hospital. Last week in Madrid’s Puerta Del Sol square, a professor teaches a lesson outdoors while students take notes, all as a means of protesting education cuts. “The Indignados gave birth to a myriad number of citizens’ groups that are channeling much of the protest and people’s sense of desperation,” says Assiego. “Without these groups, there would have been a social explosion.” In an unprecedented action, we’ve all joined together — judges, prosecutors, lawyers and clerks, from left to right. We feel this incompetent political establishment is trying to dismantle the basic pillars of Spanish society — health, education and justice.
“Church squares up for a fight over gay marriage.” By Ruth Gledhill and Laura Pitel. Times of London. December 11, 2012. The new Archbishop of Canterbury is on a collision course with the Government today as the Church of England and Roman Catholics dig in their heels over gay marriage. One of the worst crises between the Church and the State in decades is threatened as ministers publish their response to a public consultation on same-sex marriage. Bishop Justin Welby, who succeeds Dr Rowan Williams as Archbishop in the spring, takes the official Church line on the issue — that a redefinition of marriage will dilute its importance and integrity. His position is an added headache for David Cameron, who is already facing fierce opposition from within the Conservative Party. The Prime Minister called yesterday for a “reasonable debate” about the proposed legislation — as a Tory MP appeared to draw a parallel between gay marriage and the practice of taking multiple wives. Matthew Offord, MP for Hendon, asked the Commons: “Has the Government considered introducing other forms of marriage such as polygamy and if not, when can minorities who believe in such a practice expect their own consultation?” Mr Cameron urged all sides to temper their language, but heated exchanges in Westminster set the stage for continued confrontation.
“British Plan for Gay Marriage Would Exclude Anglican Church.” New York Times. December 12, 2012.
“Church of England banned from offering same-sex marriages but all other religious organisations can ‘opt in’ for gay ceremonies; Gay marriage will be illegal in the Church of England and Church in Wales.” Independent. December 12, 2012.
“Church of England and Church in Wales protest at gay marriage ban; Archbishop of Wales says church was not consulted over ‘quadruple lock’, saying it had left the church ‘shocked’.” Guardian. December 13, 2012.
“Don’t give the homeless money, call this hotline, says minister at charity launch.” By Charlie Cooper. Independent. December 11, 2012. Giving money or food to a homeless person won’t do them any good, the housing minister has said, as welfare charities launch a “homelessness hotline” billed by the Government as an alternative to hand-outs. StreetLink is a new national helpline for members of the public concerned about a rough sleeper in their area. Backed by 500 homelessness charities, operators will pass on information about a homeless person’s location and circumstances to support services in their area, which will then offer them targeted help. The scheme, which has been trialled successfully in London, Liverpool and Manchester since last year, is backed by the Housing Minister Mark Prisk who urged people to offer “a hand-up, rather than a handout”. “Most people know that giving money or food won’t help a rough sleeper find a home, get the healthcare they need, or simply put them in touch with the support available to make sure they don’t become entrenched in the lifestyle or living on the streets,” Mr Prisk said. The Government is providing £250,000 funding for the helpline. The number of people living on the streets has soared since the recession. According to the most recent official figures, nearly 2,200 people were sleeping rough on any one night in Autumn 2011 – up by a fifth in one year. The next set of annual figures, compiled by the Department of Communities and Local Government, will be released in February and some charities fear another sharp increase.
“Change, Not Decay; The decline in Christian affiliation is a challenge to the Church. It should respond by embracing modernity.” No by-line. Times of London. December 12, 2012. Change, as Disraeli said, is constant. The decline in Christian observance in British society over the past century is a peculiarly striking instance of it. The 2011 Census suggests that this trend has lately accelerated. The number of Christians living in England and Wales has declined by four million in the past decade. The proportion of people describing themselves as having no religion has risen 10 percentage points to 25 per cent of the population. There are different ways that the Church, especially the established Church, might respond. One is to assert that the truths of Scripture and tradition are unaffected by shifting mores and patterns of religious affilation, and to proclaim them. The alternative is to accommodate itself to modern sensibilities. Either might be a plausible strategy but they are exclusive. And it is in the long-term interests of Christianity, and of British society, that the Church adopt the second course. The Church of England, in particular, should be truly a national institution and not a sect. A century ago, the connection between Church and society was strong. For most, affiliation was with the Church of England; for significant minorities, it was with the Free Churches or Roman Catholicism. The bond was not merely one of belief and worship, but also of schooling, recreation and voting behaviour. To be formally non-religious was a defiantly unconventional choice. That world has dissipated. Religious affiliation is now more diverse as well as less formally Christian. Whereas the number of identifying Christians in England and Wales declined from 37 million to 33 million in the past decade, the number of Muslims rose sharply, to 2.7 million.
This is the environment in which Bishop Justin Welby, Rowan Williams’s successor as Archbishop of Canterbury, needs to lead the established Church.
“Less religious and more ethnically diverse: Census reveals a picture of Britain today; From the number of people going to church, to the number of children in the average household, a lot has changed in Britain since 2001. Charlotte Philby gets behind the numbers of the latest survey.” By Charlotte Philby. Independent. December 12, 2012 . Religion: Number of Christians down 12% in a decade. The number of people calling themselves Christian in the UK fell dramatically between 2001 and 2011. Christianity was the only religion to see a drop-off in membership, with a 12% decrease during those 10 years. The Methodist church described the results as “challenging but not discouraging” while the pioneering Christian group Fresh Expressions said “The church in England and Wales needs to find new ways of engaging those who no longer have, or never had any interest.” The British Humanist Association spoke of a “significant cultural shift” in a society where “[r]eligious practice, identity, belonging and belief are all in decline… and non-religious identities are on the rise”. The number of people with no religion at all in the UK has doubled since 2001. Islam showed the biggest growth in the country with 1.2 million – 5% of the population – calling themselves Muslims in 2011. That is up 1.8% in the past decade. Critics suggest this figure could be misleading, and in fact be a matter of more Muslims filling in the form properly. Birth rates among the Islamic community are not out of proportion with the rate of population increase.
“Why civil servants make good charity trustees; When civil servants volunteer as charity trustees it is enriching for both the public and charitable sectors.” By Mark Gibson. Guardian. December 12, 2012. I’ve always been passionate about learning, which is why I was attracted to the Whitehall and Industry Group, the independent charity established to enable learning, promote understanding and share best practice between the public, private and voluntary sectors and where I have been chief executive for four years. Before this I was senior civil servant in the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills for 30 years. I’ve also been fascinated to see what works best in terms of achieving learning between the sectors. Something that stands out for me is the value that can be achieved when civil servants volunteer as trustees of charities. There should be a lot more of this volunteering; the value to both sides is huge and the only cost is the time involved. There are some excellent examples, such as Matthew Hilton, a director in the Business Innovation and Skills, who is chair of the National Deaf Children’s Society. As a charity, we understand the need to find high-calibre trustees who add value and can shape a charity’s strategic direction and have helped a number of charities to recruit civil servants to their boards. A civil servant may not immediately sit at the top of a charity’s trustee wish-list; a big hitter from business with lots of commercial contacts might often be considered more desirable. However, civil servants can add just as much to charity boards. Most charities are involved in issues of public policy and civil servants understand this. Good governance is also very important to charities and civil servants understand this too. Civil servants may bring particular skills as lawyers or HR specialists but all will also be very bright, excellent at analysing issues and enthusiastic for the public good – which charities do so much to create. Most civil servants do want to make a difference, however hackneyed the phrase, and of course charities are established to do just this.
“How to maintain high standards as your organisation grows; It is important to keep volunteers and service users at the heart of what you do, says Keith Arscott.” By Keith Arscott. Guardian. December 10, 2012. As the head of a charity which is expanding every day, both in terms of volunteer numbers and beneficiaries, I know how important it is to ensure that the same care and attention is put into looking after your stakeholders after you have grown, as it was when you were first starting out. Limited budget, lack of time, and too few staff can make this challenging for smaller organisations. But it’s still possible to maintain high standards. Many organisations are in danger of losing their personal touch when their operations expand. An organisation might be growing, but it is important that volunteers and service users know they are all still valued as individuals. When I first arrived at Contact the Elderly four years ago, I was instantly struck by how welcoming and passionate staff members were when dealing with volunteers and the older people – so much so, the term ‘older guest’ was coined as a more friendly way of referring to our beneficiaries. It’s a simple thing, but we know the older people appreciate it and it makes them feel as if they belong to their local groups. Since then, the number of beneficaries has increased to almost 4,000, and yet each of them is still a personal ‘guest’ of a group. We’re all really busy, it’s the nature of today’s world, so how many of us stop to pause for breath and give people a little quality time? When you receive calls from potential volunteers or beneficiaries and it looks they like they might not be eligible for your service or they’re looking for a different type of volunteering opportunity, why not spend a few minutes chatting, and equally important – listening to them – and signposting them to other organisations that may be able to help. On many an occasion such considerations will bring unexpected rewards and connections.
“Charity crisis: slump in value of £1m-plus donations; Total value of charitable donations worth £1m or more has plunged to lowest level since 2007, says Coutts.” No by-line. Guardian. December 9, 2012. The total value of charitable donations worth at least £1m has fallen to its lowest level since 2007, according to a leading wealth-management company. More than £1.2bn was raised through UK charitable donations of £1m or more in 2010/11, according to Coutts. That figure was down significantly from the pre-financial crash total of more than £1.6bn in 2006-7. The number of £1m-plus donations has increased from 193 to 232 over the same period, suggesting donations are getting smaller. A higher proportion of philanthropists (60%) were giving money to charities rather than charitable trusts, the report, produced in association with the University of Kent, shows. There has also been a surge in the number of £1m donors, with 130 identified, up from 73 donors the previous year. This figure includes individuals, charitable trusts, foundations and corporations, some of which made more than one donation worth at least £1m. Higher education, arts and culture and international development remain the most popular destinations for the largest gifts among donors. But support for environmental causes increased in 2010-11, and all types of charities attract some support from £1m donors, according to the report. There was a wider spread as 191 organisations received £1m donations, compared with 154 in the previous year. Organisations that received multimillion-pound donations tended to be the oldest universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, or national arts and cultural institutions.
“One out of six charities say they may have to close in 2013; Charities fall foul of public spending cutbacks and falling donations.” By Jamie Doward. The Observer. December 8, 2012. The UK’s flatlining economy is having a devastating effect on charities, according to research that suggests that two out of five face closure, with many set to disappear as early as next year unless things improve. A poll commissioned by the Charities Aid Foundation confirms that public spending cutbacks and falling donations are conspiring to devastating effect. The foundation warns that as many as one in six charities believe they may close in the coming year, while nearly half say they are being forced to dip into reserves. One in three say they fear being forced to cut services. The figures will make gloomy reading in Downing Street, which believes the third sector has a vital role to play in delivering the prime minister’s vision for his “big society”. The funding crisis comes as charities report that there is more demand for their services. “Times are tough and people have less money to donate to charities,” said John Low, Caf’s chief executive. “This, combined with significant public spending cuts and increased demand for charity services, is having a shocking effect on many charities, calling into question their very viability. Many organisations are having to dip into their reserves, cut vital frontline services and some are even concerned about whether they can survive in these toughest of times.” Charitable donations in the UK dropped by a fifth last year, according to an earlier survey by Caf and the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, from £11bn to £9.3bn during 2011-12. As a result, more than eight out of 10 charities believe their sector is facing a crisis, with two in five (40%) fearing they face closure if the economic situation does not improve. Nearly three-quarters (73%) believe that they are unable to fulfil their goals, while one in four have axed staff. Smaller organisations are acutely feeling the effects of the prolonged recession, according to the poll. Research by Caf reveals that small- and medium-sized charities are facing spiralling losses. They reported deficits of more than £300m in 2011, compared with a surplus of £325m in 2007.
“Riding High; Riders for Health is a charity saving lives through the art of motorcycle maintenance.” No by-line. Times of London. December 15, 2012. It is when things are bad that it is hardest to think about those for whom things are worse. When the winds of recession leave many in Britain feeling raw, it can be difficult to focus on the arithmetic of life and death in those corners of the world where life amounts to mostly different grades of rawness. It is in such places that even modest sums transform lives. In a Micawberish equation, Riders for Health, one of the charities supported by The Times in this year’s Christmas charity appeal, calculated that in sub-Saharan Africa disease plus transport to medical facilities resulted in saved lives: disease minus transport facilities resulted in death. The solution it minted could not be simpler, or its impact more dramatic: it provided vehicles — mostly motorbikes — to health workers. One of the countries in which Riders for Health operates is Zambia, where life expectancy is 43 years. When 17 per cent of the population is HIV positive, and when TB is the primary killer of those who are HIV positive, the speed at which sufferers are identified by rural clinics becomes, very literally, a matter of life and death. By using his Yamaha motorcycle to ferry blood and other samples from outlying clinics to the district laboratory in Chadiza for analysis — and then ferrying back the results — Piero Sakala, Riders For Health’s chief courier in eastern Zambia, can measure the results of his work in lives saved. The swift testing of sputum samples for TB, and the swift return of the results, can make the difference between one person requiring treatment and an entire village becoming infected. Over the past three years Sakala has collected more than 100 samples each month. On his motorbike. Your generosity can change lives for the better. Please give.
“Tate director says not including arts in EBacc is a fatal mistake.” No by-line. Times of London. December 15, 2012. Nick Serota is the fairy godfather of modern art. He may not look like it with his austere posture, rimless glasses, tie and suit, but since he became director of the run-down Tate Gallery nearly 25 years ago, he has transformed British attitudes to art. Even he seems slightly amazed by his astonishing longevity. “Bankers, politicians, journalists all seem to move or be removed with frightening speed now,” he says. “One day they are distinguished, the next extinguished. But I think institutions can really benefit from having continuity. In art we tend to value the old as much as the new.” ir Nick is convinced that creativity is the only way Britain can survive now. “We are only going to compete worldwide if we continue to be so creative. It is the way in which we register ourselves. We are no longer important manufacturers of cars, the City is teetering but we haven’t given up the arts and we mustn’t.” After 25 years as the grand master of Modern Art, why does he think Britain is so creative? “Art is often made at a crossroads. It’s when ideas come together, cross continents and are traded that great art is produced. But Sir Nick is convinced that the Government is now making a fatal mistake with its proposed EBaccs, which exclude art and music. “As soon as you don’t include the arts in major qualifications that set you up for life, you are saying they aren’t important. Young people don’t recognise this separation between so-called academic and non-academic qualifications. They know they need both for jobs.” He can’t understand why Michael Gove hasn’t included the arts in the new qualification. “I am determined to change this. The whole arts world is horrified. “We are effectively going to give up art at 14, that’s terrible. The number of teachers will drop dramatically and schools will think of art in a secondary way. We will lose a generation of talent, in design, art, fashion, film, the theatre, music.”